1 Samuel 16:11,12 “There is still the youngest, Jesse answered, but he is tending the sheep … So he sent and had him brought in. He was ruddy with fine appearance and handsome features. Then the Lord said, ‘Rise and anoint him; he is the one’.”
David, Israel’s greatest King. David, who name is predominant in the lineage of Jesus. David, man after God’s own heart. David who fell into temptation, yet sought repentance. David, a leader, poet, musician, song writer. I believe David is one of the most fascinating Biblical characters that ever lived. David, a rags to riches story, from a humble shepherd boy to the greatest king that ever lived. Why? Because God chose and anointed him and appointed him. God chose a humble shepherd boy.
David, from the Hebrew word pronounced daw-veed, meaning beloved.
Date: According to Wayne Blank, author of Daily Bible study, “David was born about 1040 BC, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem. Anton Marks in his journal on King David says that “his reign began in 1000 BC”. The life of King Davis is written in the books of 1 and 2 Samuel. Samuel was born 1150 BC. According to Hayford’s Bible Handbook by Jack W. Hayford, p. 69, “we know that it was written after the division of the nation in 931 BC. Also since there is no mention of the fall of Samaria in 722 BC, it should be dated before this event”.
Authorship: The Jewish Talmud ascribes authorship to Samuel. However, according to Hayford, p. 69, “but some suppose that Abiathar the priest wrote it”.
The Selection of King David: According to Dr Gartow Friedrich Oehlor in his book, Theology of the Old Testament, p. 361, “The person of Samuel, moved as he was by the prophetic spirit, was now the center of the nation’s life. The sanctuary being rejected and the agency of the high priesthood suspended, the mediatorship between God and His people vested with the prophet”. The prophet Samuel is a type of Christ because he was the mediator between God and the people. In 1 Sam. 16:11-13, it tells us a little about the history and personality of David. David was the youngest son. In the Eastern and Middle Eastern cultures, the eldest son is most respected and is usually the elder of the family after the death of the father. David, on the contrary, was the youngest son. David was a shepherd. I believe that it was at this time that David developed an intimate relationship with God. In Samuel 6:13, when Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed David, the spirit of God came on David in power. In Luke 3:21-22, it tells us about the baptism of Jesus. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River by John the Baptist, the spirit of God came in the form of a dove and rested on Jesus. It was then, and only then, that Jesus had supernatural power to go and perform miracles. Now let us compare these two portions of Scripture with a charismatic perspective.
|1 Samuel 16:13||Luke 3:21,22|
|The holy spirit came upon David in power when Samuel anointed Him in the presence of his brothers.||When Jesus was baptized by the prophet, John the Baptist, the holy spirit came on Him in the form of a dove.|
The significance of the anointing of David is of tremendous importance to me because I believe that it is symbolic of the baptism of Jesus. It was only after this anointing and this baptism that there was a “radical transformation” in the life of David and the ministry of Jesus. Why? Because from that particular point, the holy spirit came on them in power.
David’s powerful reign: According to the Old Testament Survey by William Sanford, David Allan, Frederic William, p. 244, 245, the reign of David can be split into three parts summarized as:
- King over Judah at Hebron: (1:1-4:12). David’s respite from Saul’s persecution and his return from exile among the Philistines were clouded by his remorse at the slaughter on Mt Gilboa.
- Struggle for the Throne (2:1-4:12): “David’s triumphal return from his sojourn in Ziglag resulted in his acclamation as King in Judah in Hebron.
- King over all Israel at Jerusalem: The rival gone, David was hailed at Hebron as king of all Israel.
David’s political and religious reforms:
David’s political reforms: According to the Pictorial Bible Dictionary by Merril C. Tenny, “from 1002 to about 995 BC, David expanded his kingdom on all sides: west against Philistia, taking Gath; east against Moab; north against Syria; and south against stubborn Edom. An alliance with Hiram of Tyre enabled David to construct a palace in Jerusalem. David’s political analogies with Egypt, his cabinet, including such officers as the recorder (public relations official), the scribe (secretary of state), David reigned supreme”. According to the Old Testament Survey by William Sanford, David Allen and Frederic William, “David’s religious reforms, military outreach and political and social reorganization called for sweeping changes in administrative structure”.
According to Old Testament Life and Literature (1968) by Gerald A. Larue, “the old chieftain type kingship represented by Saul belonged to the past; kingship now involved administration of a large unified central state and military control of subject areas. Gone forever was the time when it could be said “everyone did what was right in his own sight”.
David’s religious reforms: According to the Pictorial Bible Dictionary by Merril C. Tenney, “David also elevated Jerusalem into his religious capital by installing Moses’ ark of the covenant in a tent on Zion. He honoured it both with dedicatory psalm and with a permanent ministry of Levitical singers under Asaph”. According to Gerald A. Larue “Ritual sacrifices associated with the moving of the ark were performed by David. No special shrine or temple was constructed for the ark, making it necessary for a writer to explain why David failed to build a temple for Yahweh, although he constructed a palace for himself” (ch. 7). What Gerald C. Larue, who wrote Old Testament Life and Literature (1988) failed to realize is that God specifically told David that his son Solomon would build the temple of God and Solomon, blessed beyond measure financially, built a magnificent temple for God. Solomon did a great job in building the temple.
Davidic Covenant: According to the Moody Handbook of Theology by Paul Enns, he states that “the kingdom concept reaches its zenith in the Davidic Covenant, which predicts the future millennial reign of David’s greater son, the Messiah”. Paul Enns goes on to state the nature of the covenant in 2 Samuel 7, God promised David the following:
- David is to have a child yet to be born who shall succeed him and establish his kingdom.
- This son (Solomon) shall build the temple instead of David.
- The throne of his kingdom shall be established forever.
- The throne will not be taken away from him (Solomon) even though his sins justify chastisement.
- David’s house, throne and kingdom shall be established forever.
Distinctive Pentecostal Beliefs: 1 Samuel 16:18. “I have seen a son of Jesse of Bethlehem who knows how to play the harp. He is a brave man and a warrior. He speaks well and is a fine looking man. And the Lord is with him”. Why was the Lord with David? Because I believe he spent time praising and worshipping God. (Let us picture David sitting on a rock with beautiful hills all around him surrounded by his sheep. Just lost in the presence of God, playing harp, eyes closed, just loving God.) That is the reason God chose him and called him a man after God’s own heart. As David was shepherding his flock, it was a preparation time for him to shepherd his people; shepherd a nation.
Now coming back to the topic of a distinctive Pentecostal belief, praise and worship is definitely a key point. I believe David is the most awesome worship leader that ever lived.
Secondly, 1 Samuel 16:13, when David was anointed as King, the spirit of the Lord came on him in power. He was anointed. Thirdly, 2 Samuel 23:2 “The spirit of the Lord spoke through me, his word was on my tongue”. The Lord speaks through David because he is full of the spirit of God.
Personal Application: This study of the life of David has really put within me a desire and an urge to spend more time praising and worshipping God. I feel that I am now in the “liminality” or in the transaction period of what God has in store for me. As I studied the life of David, it gave me hope that in due time God always answers. God has a specific plan and purpose for our lives. David was chosen by God and God had a plan and purpose for his life. In the same way, I can now face the future without worry or fear, knowing that God has chosen me and has a definite plan and purpose for my life.
In conclusion, I would like to quote from the Moody Handbook of Theology by Paul Enns, “God will ultimately move to restore man from his subservience to sin. He will do it through Messiah, a descendant of David. God will eventually give Messiah an earthly political and spiritual kingdom over Israel and over the nations in which Messiah will rule in righteousness.
David’s life as King taken from Nelson’s Complete Book of Bible Maps and Charts.
According to Walter C. Kaiser in his book Old Testament Theology, “God’s promise to David in 2 Samuel 7 has to be among the most brilliant moments in the history of salvation”.
Blank, Wayne, Daily Bible Study, article from internet.
Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology, Moody Press, Chicago, 1989.
Hayford, Jack W., Hayford’s Bible Handbook, Nashville, 1995.
Kaiser, Walter C., Toward an Old Testament Theology, Michigan, 1995.
Larue, Gerald A., Old Testament Life and Literature, article from Internet, 1968.
Marles, Anton, Journal King David, article from internet, 2000.
Nelson, T., Nelson’s Complete Book of Bible Maps and Charts, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, 1996.
Oehler, Dr G. F., Theology of the Old Testament, Minnesota, 1883.
Sanford, William, Allen, David, William Frederic, Old Testament Survey, Michigan, Zondervan, 1982.
Tenney, Merril C., Pictorial Bible Dictionary, Michigan, Zondervan, 1963.